Immunoradiometric assay for qualitative determination Antibody to Hepatitis C Virus (Anti-HCV) in human serum or plasma
Because of the absence of serological markers, blood screening test for blood-borne, non-A, non-B hepatitis were not available in the past. It was not until 1989, when Choo et al. cloned cDNA segments of the non-A, non-B hepatitis virus (designated Hepatitis C virus, HCV) from infectious chimpanzee plasma, that this became applicable. Hepatitis C is a disease caused by viral infection, which is primarily a result of blood transfusion or improper needle punctures. According to report studies prior to 1980, the risk of post-transfusion hepatitis was estimated to be 7 to 12%, with approximated 90% of post-transfusion hepatitis being caused by the NANB hepatitis agent. Other reports estimated that 5 to 10% of transfused individuals will develop acute NANB hepatitis, with 40% to 60% progressing to become chronic NANB hepatitis and carriers. Recently, the post-transfusion, NANB hepatitis agent, which also spreads through non-transfusion routes, was definitively named hepatitis C virus based on knowledges obtained with genetic engineering techniques. Since hepatitis C is a significant problem for public health management, screening for hepatitis C, therefore, is urgently needed.
The RIAKEY Anti-HCV IRMA is an two step non-competitive immunoradiometric (IRMA) method. The method employs one the 3rd generation recombinant HCV Antigen (Core, NS3, NS4-2 and NS5). The recombinant antigen is coated on solid phase (coated tube) and recombinant protein-A labeled with Iodine-125, is used as a tracer. Antigen-coated polystyrene tubes serve as solid phase. The tracer antigen and the coated antigen react simultaneously with the Anti-HCV present in the control.